Table 1: Features of each gain design method.

Kalman filter-based method MV filter criterion Proposed method
Minimizing function Summation of error variances of all state
parameters when using assumed motion model
Smoothing performance index σp2 J(α,β) (Comprehensive performance
in smoothing and tracking)
Design parameter Tracking index efin and ac (gain β in (4)) ad (Corresponding to target acceleration)
On determination criterion of design parameters Sufficiently discussed. There is no report* Presented in this paper.
Performance Worse than MV filter criterion* Better than Kalman filter-based method. Same as MV filter criterion.

*indicates the weaknesses of each method.